Induction of specific cytochrome P-450 isozymes by methylenedioxyphenyl compounds and antagonism by 3-methylcholanthrene.
Two methylenedioxyphenyl compounds, isosafrole (5-propenyl-1,3-benzodioxole) and an analog, 5-t-butyl-1,3-benzodioxole (BD), differ markedly as inducers of cytochrome P-450 isozymes in rat liver microsomes. Isosafrole is a mixed-type inducer, inducing P-450b, P-450c, and P-450d. In contrast, BD is a phenobarbital-type inducer, increasing P-450b, but producing little or no increase in P-450c or P-450d. Similarly, isosafrole increases the amount of translatable mRNA for P-450b, c and d, while BD induces only the mRNA for P-450b. Dimethylation of the methylene bridge carbon of BD to give 2,2-dimethyl-5-t-butyl-1,3-benzodioxole (DBD) blocks the formation of NADPH-reduced Type III metabolite-P-450 complexes in vitro, and diminishes but does not abolish the ability of the compound to induce P-450b. Western blots of microsomes from isosafrole and BD-treated rat livers confirm that in contrast to isosafrole, BD does not induce P-450d or P-450c. However, the antibody to P-450d recognizes two new polypeptides (approximately 50K Mr) from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels of liver microsomes from BD-treated rats. These polypeptides are not observed in control, isosafrole, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), or DBD-treated rats. They are intensified by coadministration of 3-MC with BD and may represent either modified isozyme-metabolite adducts or degradation products of P-450d. However, the polypeptides could not be generated in vitro by addition of BD to 3-MC-induced microsomes with NADPH under conditions which produced spectral metabolite complexes, or in a reconstituted system with P-450d. The two methylenedioxyphenyl compounds do not form stable metabolite complexes with the same P-450 isozymes. BD formed distinct spectral metabolite complexes in vitro with both P-450b and P-450c but not with P-450d in a reconstituted system. In contrast, isosafrole forms metabolite complexes with all three isozymes. Coadministration of 3-MC with BD blocked induction of P-450b by 80% and produced a similar repression of its translatable mRNA. This finding indicates that 3-MC type inducers not only induce certain cytochrome P-450 isozymes, but also repress synthesis of other isozymes.
Yeowell, HN; Linko, P; Hodgson, E; Goldstein, JA
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