Bladder substitution in children.
In spite of all the difficulties, cystoplasty, particularly with the ileocecal segment, has proved rewarding. Undiversion is easily accomplished in this way. Most patients are outwardly well and happy. Reflux usually does no harm in the near term, especially if infection can be prevented, and bladder pressures are not elevated. However, we believe that we are close to being able to prevent reflux in a reliable manner. If this is the case, the ileocecal segment or hemi-Kock pouch may clearly become the optimal choice for bladder substitution in patients with reflux or ureteral obstruction, as well as those with short ureters or very small bladders, or as a standard method of undiversion. We have also employed the intussuscepted ileum as the antireflux mechanism in patients undergoing bladder substitution using a patch of small bowel as in the hemi-Kock. This technique allows one to leave the cecum and ileocecal valve in situ, reducing the risk of chronic postoperative diarrhea. In addition, small bowel is proving to be more compliant on the average than large bowel segments when used in bladder reconstruction. Whether the ileocecal segment or the hemi-Kock cystoplasty has a permanent place in undiversion and in the treatment of chronic or pharmacoresistant noncompliant bladder, neuropathic or otherwise, the techniques learned are making total replacement of the bladder with bowel segments a more attractive and feasible undertaking. The pool of patients susceptible to such maneuvers is a large one.
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