Function and evolutionary conservation of distinct epitopes on the leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (TQ-1, Leu-8) that regulate leukocyte migration.
The leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1, TQ=1, Leu-8) in humans, like its murine homologue, MEL-14, is the principal receptor that mediates the binding of leukocytes to high endothelial venules (HEV) of peripheral lymph nodes. In this study, several regions of the protein which mediate receptor function were identified by using a large panel of murine mAb reactive with LAM-1. Individual mAb reacted with LAM-1+ cells with characteristic intensities of immunofluorescence staining, and each bound both lymphocytes and neutrophils. Lymphocyte attachment to HEV was significantly inhibited by the binding of five mAb. In contrast, only two of these mAb were able to completely block the binding of phosphomannan monoester core complex from the yeast Hansenula holstii cell wall (PPME), a phosphomannan monoester core polysaccharide that serves as a soluble model of the natural ligand of LAM-1. Interestingly, the binding of two anti-LAM-1 mAb to cells induced a significant increase in PPME binding, reminiscent of the increase in receptor affinity observed after leukocyte activation. Antibody cross-blocking studies indicated that many of the functionally important epitopes were spatially distinct, and domain mapping indicated that they recognized distinct domains of LAM-1. The expression and function of these epitopes were further assessed by using a variety of animal species to further characterize the functionally relevant epitopes defined in these studies. At least some anti-LAM-1 mAb reacted with leukocytes from monkey, cow, rabbit, sheep, dog, cat, pig, and goat, but not from chicken, rat, or mouse. The reactivity of anti-LAM-1 mAb in several animal species correlated with the ability of leukocytes to bind PPME, and mAb that inhibited lymphocyte binding to HEV in man could also inhibit this function in rhesus monkey and dog. Thus, several LAM-1 epitopes are structurally and functionally well conserved throughout recent mammalian evolution, emphasizing an important role for LAM-1 in the regulation of leukocyte traffic.
Spertini, O; Kansas, GS; Reimann, KA; Mackay, CR; Tedder, TF
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