Role of selectins in development of adult respiratory distress syndrome.
The acute lung injury of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterised by inflammatory cell accumulation and activation in the lung. Selectins are a family of adhesion molecules implicated in leucocyte-endothelial adhesion, whose receptors can exist in a cleaved, soluble form. We investigated whether circulating soluble selectin adhesion molecules, obtained from ARDS at-risk patients, were associated with subsequent ARDS development. 82 patients, at risk of ARDS, were enrolled from three well-defined groups (multiple trauma, pancreatitis, perforated bowel). Plasma samples were obtained on hospital presentation and soluble L, E, and P, selectins were quantified with a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 14 patients subsequently developed ARDS. Initial plasma soluble L-selectin (sL-selectin) levels were significantly lower in patients who progressed to ARDS compared to those who did not (p = 0.0001; 95% Cl for mean in ARDS patients as percent of that in non-ARDS patients, 27-61%). Moreover concentrations were lower than in 62 normal volunteers (range 0.37-6.55, median 1.83 micrograms/mL, n = 62), suggesting that a selective reduction of sL-selectin correlates with susceptibility. In addition, a significant correlation was found between low values of sL-selectin and indices of subsequent lung injury including requirement for ventilation (p = 0.0001) and degree of respiratory failure (p = 0.0001). A significant correlation was also found between low values of sL-selectin and patient mortality (p = 0.002). These results elucidate the inflammatory cell endothelial interactions in the early stages of ARDS and may be of prognostic value.
Donnelly, SC; Haslett, C; Dransfield, I; Robertson, CE; Carter, DC; Ross, JA; Grant, IS; Tedder, TF
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