Evaluation of lymphocyte differentiation in primary and secondary immunodeficiency diseases.
The differentiation status of T and B cells was evaluated in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVI), selective IgA deficiency (IgA), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with the use of conventional lymphocyte markers and four new monoclonal antibodies that identify lymphocyte subpopulations. These antibodies are HB 4, which identifies a subpopulation of resting B cells; HB 5, which identifies the C3d/EBV receptor on mature B cells; HB 7, which identifies immature B lymphocytes; and HB 10, which reacts with virgin but not activated or memory T cells. T and B cells from the IgA patients typically had normal phenotypic profiles, whereas diverse patterns of lymphocyte maturation were observed in CVI. In 11 of 16 CVI patients, B cells had normal antigenic phenotypes. Although B cells from four other CVI patients had normal frequencies of HB 5 and HB 7 antigen expression, few expressed the HB 4 antigen, suggesting that they were activated. In contrast, a large percentage of B cells from one CVI patient were of an immature phenotype. The expression of the HB 10 antigen by T cells in CVI patients was also variable, being normal in 10 of 16 patients, yet significantly decreased in six others. The vast majority of the limited numbers of IgM B cells from five XLA patients (greater than 100-fold reduction) has an immature phenotype (HB 4-5-7+). Interestingly, the circulating T cells in XLA patients were phenotypically similar to those in normal newborns, suggesting that T cell immaturity or defective T cell activation may occur in these B cell-deficient individuals. Circulating B cells from AIDS patients were mostly HB 7-, with variable expression of the HB 4 antigen and significantly decreased expression of the HB 5 antigen. Most of the T cells from AIDS patients were HB 10-, and thus appeared to be activated.
Tedder, TF; Crain, MJ; Kubagawa, H; Clement, LT; Cooper, MD
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