Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and other cytokines regulate surface expression of the leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 on human neutrophils, monocytes, and their precursors.
There is increasing evidence that cytokines such as granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF can profoundly affect the adhesion, aggregation, and mobility of neutrophils both in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms whereby these factors might alter the adhesive properties of neutrophils are incompletely understood. A new family of cellular adhesion molecules has recently been identified by cDNA cloning. The members of this family include human leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1), the human endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule, and the mouse leukocyte homing receptor for high endothelial venules, MEL-14. LAM-1 is the human homologue of murine MEL-14, and is believed to mediate binding of leukocytes to human high endothelial venules. LAM-1 can be identified by mAb TQ-1, Leu 8, or anti-LAM1.1. The expression and regulation of LAM-1 on granulocytes, monocytes, and their precursors was investigated using flow cytometry and the anti-LAM-1.1 mAb. Neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, marrow myeloid cells, granulocyte/macrophage colony-forming unit, and burst-forming unit for erythroid cells were LAM-1+ by flow microfluorimetry. The regulation of LAM-1 expression was tested by treating various cell populations with cytokines or other stimuli for 0-90 min. Exposure of neutrophils, monocytes, and marrow myeloid cells to GM-CSF induced rapid and complete loss of LAM-1 from the cell surface, but had no effect on LAM-1 expression by lymphocytes. The loss of LAM-1 was temporally correlated with up-regulation of CD11b (Mo1), an adhesion molecule involved in neutrophil aggregation. Several other factors known to activate neutrophils also caused down-regulation of LAM-1 and up-regulation of CD11b, including TNF, FMLP, and leukotriene B4. Interestingly, granulocyte-CSF and IFN-gamma had minimal effects on neutrophil LAM-1 expression. Similar results were observed on monocytes and myeloid precursor cells. Thus, exposure of neutrophils to GM-CSF results in a profound change in surface expression of adhesion molecules, with coordinated up-regulation of CD11b and down-regulation of LAM-1. These changes in adhesion proteins are likely to alter aggregation and mobility of both mature myeloid cells and their precursors in patients receiving certain types of cytokine therapy.
Griffin, JD; Spertini, O; Ernst, TJ; Belvin, MP; Levine, HB; Kanakura, Y; Tedder, TF
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