The CD19 signal transduction complex of B lymphocytes. Deletion of the CD19 cytoplasmic domain alters signal transduction but not complex formation with TAPA-1 and Leu 13.
CD19 expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes is a key member of a cell surface signal transduction complex that includes TAPA-1, Leu 13 and CD21. The human CD19 protein is composed of 540 amino acids with a cytoplasmic domain of 242 amino acids. Although the cytoplasmic domain of CD19 has no sequence homology with other proteins, the cytoplasmic domain of human, mouse, and guinea pig CD19 is highly conserved suggesting that this region of CD19 is at least partially responsible for signaling activity. In this study, the regions of CD19 required for intermolecular associations and signal transduction were determined by comparing a series of carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic tail deletion mutants and a CD19/L-selectin chimera with native CD19. CD19 expressed in the human Rex T cell line and the K562 erythroleukemia cell line generated transmembrane signals and also associated with endogenous TAPA-1. Deletion of 95% of the CD19 cytoplasmic domain did not affect the ability of CD19 to be expressed or to associate with TAPA-1. However, replacement of the CD19 transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains with those of L-selectin (CD19-LAM) resulted in the loss of CD19 complex formation, suggesting that the membrane spanning domain is critical for this association. Similarly, the induction of homotypic adhesion through CD19 or truncated CD19 was equivalent, whereas homotypic adhesion was not induced via the CD19-LAM chimera. In addition, the cytoplasmic domain was not necessary for CD19 mAb-mediated growth inhibition or internalization. In contrast, the CD19 cytoplasmic domain was required for optimal mAb-induced increases in [Ca2+]i in CD19 cDNA-transfected Rex cells. Thus, the CD19 cytoplasmic domain is responsible for the induction of increased [Ca2+]i, and the transmembrane region is required for cell surface associations with the other members of the CD19 complex and most signaling events. Therefore, mAb binding to CD19 is likely to initiate multiple intracellular signal transduction cascades either through CD19 directly, or through other members of the CD19 complex.
Bradbury, LE; Goldmacher, VS; Tedder, TF
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