Effects of ciprofloxacin on eucaryotic pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis and cell growth.
Several of the new 4-quinolones significantly increase the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into the DNA of mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes. This study suggests that ciprofloxacin inhibits de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis, thereby resulting in a compensatory increase in the uptake of pyrimidine precursors through salvage pathways, and that additional effects may affect eucaryotic cell growth. Incorporation of deoxyuridine, uridine, and orotic acid as well as thymidine was increased in the presence of ciprofloxacin, one of the antibacterially most active of the new 4-quinolones. In contrast, the uptake was decreased in very high concentrations of the drug. Culture in HAT (hypoxanthine, aminopterine, thymidine) medium, which blocks de novo thymidylate synthesis, abrogated the increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation induced by ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin also failed to increase the uptake of [14C]hypoxanthine or leucine, indicating a selective effect on pyrimidine and not on purine nucleotide biosynthesis. N-(Phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate, an inhibitor of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis, also increased [3H]thymidine incorporation in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes in a fashion similar to ciprofloxacin. The growth of several cell lines was partially inhibited by ciprofloxacin at 20 micrograms/ml and completely inhibited at 80 to 160 micrograms/ml. Growth inhibition by ciprofloxacin could not be restored by the addition of uridine to the medium. Chromosome breaks, gene amplification, or other genetic alterations could not be detected in human lymphocytes incubated with up to 25 micrograms of ciprofloxacin per ml.
Forsgren, A; Bredberg, A; Pardee, AB; Schlossman, SF; Tedder, TF
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