Characteristics of GTP-mediated microsomal Ca2+ release.
Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) can release Ca2+ and enhance responses to D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in crude liver microsomes in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (Dawson et al. (1986) Biochem. J. 234, 311-315). The mechanism of these responses has been further investigated. GTP gamma S which antagonizes the actions of GTP on microsomes, does not promote Ca2+ re-uptake when added after the completion of GTP-mediated Ca2+ release. However, the effects of GTP could be reversed by washing or dilution of the microsomes. Addition of PEG to the incubation medium promoted the aggregation of microsomes. Electron microscopy provided no evidence for the fusion of microsomal vesicles in the presence or absence of GTP. In the presence of PEG, GTP produced an alteration of the permeability properties of the microsomal membrane as indicated by increased leakage of an intraluminal esterase, a reduction in the mean buoyant density of the vesicles, and a decrease in the latency of mannose 6-phosphate hydrolysis. All three effects developed relatively slowly, whereas the effects of GTP on Ca2+ fluxes occurred more rapidly (complete within 15 min). A low permeability to mannose 6-phosphate was restored upon washing away the GTP. These results suggest that non-specific permeability changes may underly the effects of GTP on Ca2+ release and that, under certain conditions, GTP can reversibly modulate the permeability of a transmembrane 'pore' in microsomal membranes that can pass ions and macromolecules. The possibility that such a pore serves to link IP3-sensitive vesicles with other Ca2+-containing compartments is discussed.
Joseph, SK; Rice, HL; Nicchitta, CV
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