Anti-glycoprotein D monoclonal antibody protects against herpes simplex virus type 1-induced diseases in mice functionally depleted of selected T-cell subsets or asialo GM1+ cells.
Passive transfer of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for glycoprotein D (gD) is highly effective in preventing the development of herpes simplex virus type 1-induced stromal keratitis. In the present study, we investigated whether animals which had been functionally depleted of T-cell subsets or asialo GM1+ cells would continue to be responsive to MAb therapy. BALB/c mice were depleted of CD4+, CD8+, or asialo GM1+ cells by treatment with anti-L3T4, anti-Lyt 2.2, or anti-asialo GM1 antibodies, respectively. Functional depletion of CD4+ cells was documented by the loss of delayed-type hypersensitivity responsiveness, while CD8+ cell depletion was accompanied by abrogation of cytotoxic lymphocyte activity. Anti-asialo GM1 treatment led to the loss of natural killer cell lytic activity. Mice depleted of the desired cell population and infected on the scarified cornea with herpes simplex virus type 1 uniformly developed necrotizing stromal keratitis by 3 weeks postinfection. A single inoculation of anti-gD MAb (55 micrograms) given intraperitoneally 24 h postinfection strongly protected hosts depleted of CD4+ cells against stromal keratitis. Likewise, antibody treatment in CD8+ or asialo GM1+ cell-depleted hosts was as therapeutically effective as that seen in non-cell-depleted mice. We also observed that in cell-depleted mice, the virus spread into the central nervous system and caused encephalitis. The CD4+ cell-depleted mice were the most severely affected, as 100% developed fatal disease. Anti-gD MAb treatment successfully protected all (32 of 32) CD4+-, CD8+-, or asialo GM1(+)-depleted hosts against encephalitis. We therefore conclude that antibody-mediated prevention of stromal keratitis and encephalitis does not require the obligatory participation of CD4+, CD8+, or asialo GM1+ cells. However, when mice were simultaneously depleted of both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets, antibody treatment could not prevent fatal encephalitis. Thus, antibody can compensate for the functional loss of one but not two T-lymphocyte subpopulations.
Staats, HF; Oakes, JE; Lausch, RN
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