Helper Th1 and Th2 cell responses following mucosal or systemic immunization with cholera toxin.
We have used the potent mucosal immunogen cholera toxin (CT) to assess antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, including Th1- and Th2-type cells in mucosa-associated tissues, e.g. Peyer's patches (PP), and systemic tissue, e.g. spleen (SP), for their regulatory role in the induction of CT-specific B-cell antibody responses in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract as well as in systemic sites. The CT was given by either oral or intravenous (i.v.) routes and the mice orally immunized with CT exhibited brisk IgA anti-CT antibody responses in faecal extracts and elevated IgG anti-CT antibody responses in serum. Further, significant IgA anti-CT spot-forming cells (SFCs) were seen in lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) from mice orally immunized with CT. In contrast, i.v. immunization with CT induced IgM and IgG anti-CT SFC responses in SP, and serum anti-CT antibodies of these two isotypes; no anti-CT responses were induced in the GI tract after immunization by this route. The CD4+ T cells isolated from PP and SP of mice orally immunized with CT were stimulated in vitro with CT-B-coated latex microspheres for 1-6 days, and the induction of IL-2 and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) (Th1-type) or IL-4 and IL-5 (Th2-type) producing SFCs were analysed by a cytokine-specific ELISPOT and cytokine-specific mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Xu-Amano, J; Jackson, RJ; Fujihashi, K; Kiyono, H; Staats, HF; McGhee, JR
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