Regulation of mucosal and systemic antibody responses by T helper cell subsets, macrophages, and derived cytokines following oral immunization with live recombinant Salmonella.
We have assessed regulatory Th cell and cytokine responses in mice after oral immunization with recombinant Salmonella (BRD 847) expressing fragment C of tetanus toxoid, since little information is available to explain how these vectors induce mucosal IgA responses. A single dose of BRD 847 elicited serum IgG2a and mucosal IgA anti-tetanus toxoid Ab responses. To assess Th1-and Th2-type responses, CD4+ T cells from Peyer's patches and spleen were restimulated in vitro, and cytokine-specific ELISPOT, ELISA, and reverse transcriptase-PCR assays were used to assess cytokine patterns. CD4+ T cells produced IFN-gamma and IL-2 as well as IL-10, but not IL-4 or IL-5. Although IL-6 was elevated, further purification of cells from in vitro cultures into CD4+ Mac-1- T cells and Mac-1+ CD4- cells revealed that only the latter cell population had consistently elevated IL-6 gene expression, whereas both sorted populations exhibited increased IFN-gamma and IL-10 gene expression. Thus, orally administered recombinant Salmonella expressing fragment C of tetanus toxoid elicited dominant Ag-specific Th1-type responses together with Th2-type cells producing IL-10 in both mucosal and systemic tissues. Macrophages producing IL-6 were also evident. Our results are consistent with the suggestion that Ag-specific Th1 cells and their derived cytokines, IFN-gamma and IL-2, and Th2-derived IL-10 together with IL-6 produced by macrophages provide important signals for the development of mucosal IgA and serum IgG subclass responses in the absence of preferential expression of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5.
VanCott, JL; Staats, HF; Pascual, DW; Roberts, M; Chatfield, SN; Yamamoto, M; Coste, M; Carter, PB; Kiyono, H; McGhee, JR
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