Oral vaccine models: multiple delivery systems employing tetanus toxoid.
We have not yet directly examined the Th cell responses induced by using Salmonella/BRD 847 as a vector nor have we performed these experiments following immunization with microspheres. However, production of high serum levels of antigen-specific IgG1 may be indicative of a Th2-type response, whereas high serum levels of IgG2a may reflect a Th1-type response. An important issue in using various oral delivery systems is whether the system(s) employed affects the Th cell response to the same antigen. We therefore analyzed the serum antigen-specific IgG subclasses induced in each of the model systems we studied. Table 2 presents these results. Clearly, oral administration of soluble TT with CT as an adjuvant induced an IgG1 subclass, and encapsulation of TT within microspheres had no effect on this Th2-type response. On the other hand, oral immunization with live Salmonella expressing fragment C of tetanus toxin induced a strong IgG2a subclass response indicative of a Th1-type response. It should be noted that protection against a lethal TT challenge was afforded by elevated levels of both anti-TT IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses. We intend to examine the cytokine profiles in spleen CD4+ T cells from mice immunized with microspheres or Salmonella following in vitro antigen stimulation to confirm the T helper type responses suggested by the IgG subclass data. It will also be important to examine the cytokine patterns induced in Peyer's patch CD4+ T cells following immunization of C57BL/6 with Salmonella/BRD 847. Whereas analysis of the serum IgG subclass profile indicated a strong IgG2a response and thus a systemic Th1-type pattern, this vector also induced a good mucosal IgA response. If our current hypothesis concerning S-IgA production is correct, we would expect a predominant Th2-type profile in CD4+ T cells from Peyer's patch in these mice. Such a result would emphasize the bifurcation of T-cell responses in the systemic versus the mucosal immune environments. The data obtained to data suggest that adjuvants and various vehicle delivery systems may influence the induction of distinct T helper cell subsets to a specific antigen. The unique cytokine arrays produced by these T-cell subsets influence the immune responses in terms of systemic Ig subclasses produced, cell-mediated immune responses, and the production of mucosal S-IgA antibodies. Although additional studies are necessary, the manipulation of T-cell subsets employing adjuvants, antigen packaging, or perhaps even the addition of individual cytokines to various formulations holds significant promise for optimizing immune responses to orally administered vaccines.
Jackson, RJ; Staats, HF; Xu-Amano, J; Takahashi, I; Kiyono, H; Hudson, ME; Gilley, RM; Chatfield, SN; McGhee, JR
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