Capric acid and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose increase the immunogenicity of nasally administered peptide vaccines.
Immunization by the nasal route is an established method for the induction of mucosal and systemic humoral and cell-mediated antigen-specific responses. However, the effectiveness of nasal immunization is often hampered by the need for increased doses of antigen. Bioadhesives and absorption enhancers were investigated for their ability to enhance immune responses in mice after nasal immunization with model HIV-1 peptide and protein immunogens. Two additives, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and capric acid, consistently enhanced antigen-specific serum IgG endpoint titers under conditions in which antigen dose was limiting. Nasal immunization of mice with 20 microg of an HIV-1 peptide immunogen plus cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant induced serum antipeptide IgG titers of 1:9.5log2 after four immunizations while the addition of CA or HPMC to the vaccine formulation increased serum antipeptide IgG titers to 1:15.4log2 and 1:17.6log2, respectively. When 5 microg recombinant HIV-1 gp41 was used as the immunogen, the addition of CA or HPMC to the vaccine formulation increased serum anti-gp41 IgG titers to 1:11.6log2 and 1:8.8log2, respectively, compared to 1:5.2log2 after three nasal immunizations with 5 microg gp41 + CT alone. Thus, HPMC and capric acid may be useful additives that increase the immunogenicity of nasally administered vaccines and permit less antigen to be used with each immunization.
Nordone, SK; Peacock, JW; Kirwan, SM; Staats, HF
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