HIV-1 vaccine induced immune responses in newborns of HIV-1 infected mothers.

Published

Journal Article

OBJECTIVE: Breast milk transmission continues to account for a large proportion of cases of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 worldwide. An effective HIV-1 vaccine coupled with either passive immunization or short-term antiretroviral prophylaxis represents a potential strategy to prevent breast milk transmission. This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of ALVAC HIV-1 vaccine with and without a subunit envelope boost in infants born to HIV-1-infected women. DESIGN: : Placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. METHODS: Infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers in the US were immunized with a prime-boost regimen using a canarypox virus HIV-1 vaccine (vCP1452) and a recombinant glycoprotein subunit vaccine (rgp120). Infants (n = 30) were randomized to receive: vCP1452 alone, vCP1452 + rgp120, or corresponding placebos. RESULTS: Local reactions were mild or moderate and no significant systemic toxicities occurred. Subjects receiving both vaccines had gp120-specific binding serum antibodies that were distinguishable from maternal antibody. Repeated gp160-specific lymphoproliferative responses were observed in 75%. Neutralizing activity to HIV-1 homologous to the vaccine strain was observed in 50% of the vCP1452 + rgp120 subjects who had lost maternal antibody by week 24. In some infants HIV-1-specific proliferative and antibody responses persisted until week 104. HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses were detected in two subjects in each treatment group; the frequency of HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses did not differ between vaccine and placebo recipients. CONCLUSION: The demonstration of vaccine-induced immune responses in early infancy supports further study of HIV-1 vaccination as a strategy to reduce breast milk transmission.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • McFarland, EJ; Johnson, DC; Muresan, P; Fenton, T; Tomaras, GD; McNamara, J; Read, JS; Douglas, SD; Deville, J; Gurwith, M; Gurunathan, S; Lambert, JS

Published Date

  • July 2006

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 20 / 11

Start / End Page

  • 1481 - 1489

PubMed ID

  • 16847402

Pubmed Central ID

  • 16847402

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1473-5571

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0269-9370

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1097/01.aids.0000237363.33994.45

Language

  • eng