The identification and characterization of a ligand for bovine CD5.
CD5, a type I glycoprotein expressed by T cells and a subset of B cells, is thought to play a significant role in modulating Ag receptor signaling. Previously, our laboratory has shown that bovine B cells are induced to express this key regulatory molecule upon Ag receptor cross-linking. To date, a ligand has not been described for bovine CD5. Given the importance ligand binding presumably plays in the functioning of CD5 on this B cell subset and on T cells, we sought to characterize the ligand for this protein using a bovine CD5-human IgG1 (CD5Ig) fusion protein produced by both mammalian and yeast cells. As determined by CD5Ig binding, expression of this ligand is negative to low on freshly isolated lymphocytes, with low-density expression being limited to activated B cells. Activation with LPS, PMA, and calcium ionophore, or ligation of CD40 alone or in combination with anti-IgM, resulted in B cell-specific expression of this ligand. Interestingly, activation through B cell Ag receptor cross-linking alone, although able to induce CD5 expression, did not result in expression of CD5 ligand (CD5L). In addition, we demonstrate a functional role for CD5L as a costimulatory molecule that augments CD40L-stimulated B cell proliferation. Finally, immunoprecipitation with CD5Ig suggests that the ligand characterized in this study has a molecular mass of approximately 200 kDa. The data reported herein, as well as future studies aimed at further characterizing this newly identified bovine CD5L, will undoubtedly aid in understanding the role that the CD5-CD5L interaction plays in immune responses.
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