Risks and outcomes of invasive fungal infections in pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Invasive fungal infections (IFI) are the leading cause of infectious mortality in adult patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after myeloablative conditioning, but the extent of this problem in the pediatric population is unclear. We retrospectively examined risk factors for IFI among 120 consecutive pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic HCT at a single center. The incidence of proven or probable IFI in pediatric patients during the first year after allogeneic HCT was 13%, comparable to the rate reported in adult patients; however, unlike IFI in adult patients, the majority of IFI in children occurred within the first month after transplantation. The primary risk factors for IFI were duration of neutropenia, age greater than 10 years, transplant for severe aplastic anemia or Fanconi anemia, and high-dose corticosteroid administration for 10 days or longer. IFI were more likely to be successfully treated (42%, 5/12 patients) in pediatric HCT recipients when compared to previous reports of adult recipients. Nonrelapse mortality was estimated at 17% (20/120 patients) after allogeneic HCT, of which 35% (seven patients) were directly attributed to IFI. Thus, IFI is a significant cause of nonrelapse mortality in children undergoing allogeneic HCT and more effective strategies are needed to prevent and treat IFI.
Dvorak, CC; Steinbach, WJ; Brown, JMY; Agarwal, R
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