Thermal and SAR characterization of multielement dual concentric conductor microwave applicators for hyperthermia, a theoretical investigation.
Six aperture array dual concentric conductor (DCO) microwave hyperthermia applicators were studied using theoretical models to characterize power deposition (SAR) and steady state temperature distributions in perfused tissue. SAR patterns were calculated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) numerical method, and were used as input to a finite difference thermal modeling program based on the Pennes Bio-Heat Equation in order to calculate corresponding temperature distributions. Numerous array configurations were investigated including the use of different size DCC apertures (2, 3, and 4 cm), different spacing between apertures (1.0-2.0 cm), and different water bolus thicknesses (5-15 mm). Thermal simulations were repeated using blood perfusion values ranging from 0.5 to 5 kg/m3 s. Results demonstrate the ability of DCC array applicators to effectively and uniformly heat tissue down to a depth of 7.5-10 mm below the skin surface for a large number of different combinations of DCC element size, spacing, and water bolus thickness. Results also reveal the close correlation between SAR patterns and corresponding temperature distributions, verifying that design studies of the applicator can be performed confidently by analysis of SAR, from which the thermal behavior can be estimated. These simulations are useful in the design optimization of large microwave DCC array applicators for superficial tissue heating and for identifying appropriate aperture spacing and bolus thickness parameters for different size DCC aperture arrays and tissue blood perfusion conditions.
Rossetto, F; Diederich, CJ; Stauffer, PR
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