Forty-eight hours of postoperative pain relief after total hip arthroplasty with a novel, extended-release epidural morphine formulation.
BACKGROUND: Epidural morphine has proven analgesic efficacy in the postoperative period and is widely used. This study evaluated the efficacy of extended-release epidural morphine (EREM; DepoDur; Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc., Chadds Ford, PA; SkyePharma, Inc., San Diego, CA) in providing pain relief for 48 h after surgery. METHODS: Patients (n = 200) scheduled to undergo total hip arthroplasty were randomized to receive a single dose of 15, 20, or 25 mg EREM or placebo. After surgery and after asking for pain medication, patients had access to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia fentanyl for breakthrough pain as needed. Postoperative intravenous patient-controlled analgesia fentanyl use, time to first postoperative fentanyl use, pain intensity at rest and with activity, patient and surgeon ratings of pain control, and adverse events were recorded. RESULTS: All EREM dosages reduced the mean (+/- SD) fentanyl use versus placebo (510 +/- 708 vs. 2,091 +/- 1,803 microg; P < 0.0001) and delayed the median time to first dose of fentanyl (21.3 vs. 3.6 h; P < 0.0001). All EREM groups had significantly improved pain control at rest through 48 h postdose (area under the curve [0-48 h]) compared with placebo (P < 0.0005). More EREM-treated patients rated their pain control as good or very good compared with placebo (at 24 h: 90 vs. 65%, P < 0.0001; at 48 h: 83 vs. 67%, P < 0.05). No supplemental analgesia was needed in 25% of EREM-treated patients and 2% of placebo-treated patients at 48 h (P < 0.05). The safety profile of EREM was consistent with that of other epidurally administered opioid analgesics. CONCLUSIONS: EREM provided significant postoperative pain relief over a 48-h period after hip surgery, without the need for indwelling epidural catheters.
Viscusi, ER; Martin, G; Hartrick, CT; Singla, N; Manvelian, G; EREM Study Group,
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