Species and tissue distribution of cholecystokinin/gastrin-like substances in some invertebrates.
Twenty-six species of invertebrates representing eight phyla were surveyed for the presence of cholecystokinin/gastrin-like (CCK/gastrin-like) peptides by radioimmunoassay of various tissue extracts. This is the first report of the presence of CCK/gastrin-like peptides in representatives of the phylum Ectoprocta, the arthropodan classes Crustacea and Merostomata, and in the nervous systems of the gastropod mollusc Aplysia californica and the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus terrestris. It has been proposed that CCK/gastrin evolved in the invertebrates as a neural peptide and was subsequently exploited by the vertebrates as a regulatory peptide in both the nervous system and the gastrointestinal endocrine system. The present results indicate that some gastropod molluscs, a merostomatan arthropod, and an annelid have detectable CCK/gastrin in both nervous and gut tissue. However, extractable CCK/gastrin was found only in gut tissue and not in the central nervous system of a crustacean arthropod. The tissue origin of the extracted CCK/gastrin in Bugula (phylum Ectoprocta) was not determined. Final resolution of the question of the nervous versus gut endocrine cellular origin of CCK/gastrin in invertebrates awaits further investigation. CCK/gastrin-like peptides are widely distributed among the invertebrates, which thus provide a rich source of comparative material for study of these regulatory substances.
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