Cholecystokinin immunoreactivity in the digestive tract of bowfin (Amia calva), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).
The distribution of the intestinal hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), was studied in the gastrointestinal tract of a holostean fish, the bowfin (Amia calva), and compared to a teleostean fish, the bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), and an amphibian, the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), using an antiserum specific for the carboxyl terminal tetrapeptide of CCK in an unlabeled biotin-avidin immunoperoxidase procedure. In the bowfin CCK immunostained cells were detected only in the anterior and mid-intestine; the stomach and the rest of the gastrointestinal tract were negative. Immunoreactive cells were open in appearance and were scattered along the intestinal mucosal epithelium, with cells in mid-intestine relatively more abundant than in anterior intestine. These relative distributions were confirmed by radioimmunoassay of tissue extracts. Additional immunostained cells of uncertain function were detected in the lamina propria of the intestine. In bluegill gut immunoreactive cells were observed in the anterior and mid-intestine and in the pyloric caeca, where cells were clustered near the intestinal opening. Immunoreactive cells occurred relatively uniformly along the anterior and mid-intestine. Bullfrog CCK-containing cells were detected both in the antral stomach and in the duodenum. CCK in gut tissues likely originated in the intestine. The redistribution of CCK cells toward the anterior part of the intestine during evolution coincides with the development of a compact pancreas in higher classes of vertebrates. Such a redistribution constitutes an adaptive placement of endocrine cells for signaling during the intestinal phase of digestion.
Rajjo, IM; Vigna, SR; Crim, JW
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