Thrombin enhances monocyte secretion of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 beta by two distinct mechanisms.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Thrombosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) are common complications of infections. Abnormal activation of coagulation is due in part of expression of tissue factor on intravascular cells in response to cytokines, including interleukin-1 beta (IL1 beta ) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Both TNF and IL1 beta are thought to play significant roles in producing the pathologic manifestations of sepsis. Therefore, we examined the effects of thrombin on TNF and IL1 beta secretion of monocytes, and the ability of monocyte products to promote tissue factor expression by endothelial cells. Human monocytes were treated with thrombin or a thrombin receptor agonist peptide (SFLLRN), and/or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The agonists were removed, and monocytes cultured 18 hours. The monocyte-conditioned supernatants were assayed for TNF and IL1 beta antigen, and for their ability to induce tissue factor expression on human umbilical vein endothelial cells and the Ea.hy endothelial cell line. Thrombin alone did not promote monocyte TNF or IL-1 beta secretion. However, thrombin enhanced LPS-induced TNF and IL1 secretion. Supernatants from monocytes exposed to LPS plus thrombin promoted greater tissue factor expression on endothelial cells than supernatants from those treated with LPS only. SFLLRN did not increase TNF secretion in response to LPS, but did enhance LPS-induced IL1 beta secretion and tissue factor-inducing activity. Neither SFLLRN nor active thrombin augmented the level of mRNA for TNF above that induced by LPS alone. However, both increased the LPS-induced level of IL1 beta message. Thus, thrombin enhanced LPS-induced TNF and IL1 beta secretion by monocytes. Unexpectedly, the effects on these two cytokines were mediated by different mechanisms. Enhancement of LPS-induced IL1 beta secretion was largely mediated via the tethered ligand type thrombin receptor and correlated with an increase in the steady state level of mRNA. By contrast, enhanced TNF required proteolytically active thrombin, but was not mediated by the tethered ligand receptor. These data demonstrate that physiologically relevant amounts of thrombin can synergize with endotoxin to stimulate monokine release. Thrombin could thereby play a role in the complex network of mediators involved in the pathophysiology of sepsis. We speculate that limiting thrombin activity during DIC could be a beneficial adjunct in the management of sepsis.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Hoffman, M; Cooper, ST

Published Date

  • 1995

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 21 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 156 - 167

PubMed ID

  • 8846045

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1079-9796

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1006/bcmd.1995.0018


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States