A cell-based model of thrombin generation.
We have developed a cell-based model of thrombin generation using activated monocytes as a source of tissue factor (TF) and platelets serving as a surface for thrombin generation. Monocytes are activated by lipopolysaccharide and express cell-bound TF. To these are added physiologic (plasma) concentrations of all the plasma procoagulants as well as TF pathway inhibitor, antithrombin, and C1-esterase inhibitor. Coagulation takes place in microtiter wells and is initiated by factor VIIa (FVIIa) and calcium. At time intervals, aliquots are removed, platelet activation is measured by the expression of P-selectin, and thrombin generation is measured by chromogenic assay. In addition, one can measure the activation of FIX, FX, FVIII, FV, and FXI. Initial results reveal that the FVIIa-TF interaction results in the activation of FX to FXa and FIX to FIXa. FXa stays in the vicinity of the TF-bearing cell and, in the presence of FVa, converts a small amount of prothrombin to thrombin on the surface of the TF cell. This small amount of thrombin is not sufficient to clot fibrinogen, but is sufficient to activate platelets and FVIII, FV, and FXI. Following platelet activation, FVIIIa, FVa, and FXa occupy sites on the activated platelet surface. FIXa, activated by TF-FVIIa, does not remain on the TF cell, but converts FX to FXa on the platelet surface. FXIa acts to boost FIXa generation on the activated platelet, increasing FXa and subsequent thrombin generation. We have also shown that activated protein C does not inactivate Va on the platelet surface but rather on endothelial cell surfaces.
Roberts, HR; Hoffman, M; Monroe, DM
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