Heparin oligosaccharides enhance tissue-type plasminogen activator: a correlation between oligosaccharide length and stimulation of plasminogen activation.
The rate of plasminogen (Pg) activation by tissue-type Pg activator (t-PA) is enhanced by heparin-derived oligosaccharides. Kinetic analysis of the effects of heparin oligosaccharides, ranging in size from di- to dodecasaccharides, on Pg activation demonstrates that stimulation of the reaction is dependent on the size of the heparin oligosaccharides. Di- and tetrasaccharides enhance the activation through 2-fold increases in kcat and 4-fold decreases in Km. Hexasaccharide and larger oligosaccharides stimulate the reaction by increasing the kcat by as much as 4-fold, but do not affect the Km. Previous experiments have shown that lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] inhibits Pg activation by t-PA, but only in the presence of a template which enhances t-PA activity such as fibrinogen fragments or intact heparin. Similiarly, Lp(a) inhibits the enhancement of t-PA activity by the larger heparin oligosaccharides but has no effect on t-PA activity in the presence of di- and tetrasaccharides. The results of this study when considered with our previous observations (Edelberg & Pizzo, 1990) suggest that the enhancement in Pg activation by the smaller oligosaccharides is mediated exclusively via binding to t-PA while the larger oligosaccharides may interact with both t-PA and Pg. Furthermore, studies of Pg activation in the presence of both heparin oligosaccharides and fibrinogen fragments demonstrate that t-PA is stimulated preferentially by fibrinogen fragments.
Edelberg, JM; Conrad, HE; Pizzo, SV
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