The inhibition of tissue type plasminogen activator by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The effects of fibrinogen, heparin, vitronectin, and lipoprotein(a).
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) regulates fibrinolysis by inhibiting tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA). Fibrinogen, heparin, and vitronectin enhance the rate of inhibition of t-PA by PAI-1. Kinetic studies indicate that both fibrinogen and heparin increase the second-order inhibition constant by a maximum of approximately 4-fold, whereas vitronectin increases the rate constant by a maximum of approximately 6-fold. The dissociation constants of fibrinogen, heparin, and vitronectin for the inhibition reaction were 200 nM, 20 nM, and 600 pM, respectively. In addition, PAI-1 inhibition of t-PA may be regulated by the presence of lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)). Previous studies demonstrated that Lp(a) competes with plasminogen for the active site of fibrinogen- and heparin-bound t-PA. Kinetic studies described here demonstrate that Lp(a) prevents the inhibition of t-PA by PAI-1 in the presence of fibrinogen and heparin, but has no effect on the reaction in the presence of vitronectin or in the absence of either fibrinogen or heparin. The data suggest that fibrinogen and heparin may enhance the rate of inhibition through an interaction with t-PA, and that vitronectin may enhance the inhibition through an interaction with PAI-1. In addition, these experiments indicate that Lp(a) may regulate fibrinolysis by competing with PAI-1 and plasminogen for fibrinogen- and heparin-bound t-PA. These data suggest that PAI-1 inhibition of t-PA in vivo is primarily mediated via interaction with fibrinogen, heparin, vitronectin, and Lp(a), and therefore, the functional levels of PAI-1 activity in the vasculature may be regulated by the presence of these components.
Edelberg, JM; Reilly, CF; Pizzo, SV
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