Prognostic value of clinical markers of reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by thrombolytic therapy.
Patients who cannot be reperfused after thrombolytic therapy have a high mortality rate. Noninvasive clinical markers of reperfusion have been widely studied, yet their prognostic significance remains unclear. To assess the prognostic value of commonly used noninvasive clinical markers of early reperfusion we studied 327 patients who received intravenous thrombolytic treatment (1.5 MU streptokinase in 1 hour or 100 mg alteplase in 3 hours) within 6 hours of acute infarction. Successful clinical reperfusion (SCR) was defined as the presence of at least two of the following criteria at 2 hours after thrombolytic treatment: (1) significant relief of pain (a 5-point reduction on a 1 to 10 subjective scale), (2) > or =50% reduction of sum of ST segment elevation, and (3) abrupt initial increase of creatine kinase levels (more than twofold over the upper-normal or baseline elevated values). Clinical variables that were significantly associated by univariate analysis were tested by multivariate analysis to obtain independent predictors of 30-day mortality rate. SCR was present in 210 (64%) patients (group 1), and absent in 117 (36%) patients (group 2). The groups were similar for most baseline characteristics, although group 2 patients were slightly older (mean 60 vs 57 years, p < 0.02). Thirty-day outcomes for group 2 patients compared with group 1 patients were heart failure in 23.1% and 10.5% (p < 0.005), progression to cardiogenic shock in 12.8% and 0.5%, (p < 0.00001), and death in 16.2% and 3.8% (p < 0.0001), respectively. By multivariate analysis the Killip class at admission (p < 0.00001), the absence of SCR (p = 0.017), anterior infarct location (p = 0.021), and age (p = 0.03) were independent predictors of mortality rate, and sex (p = 0.051) had borderline significance. The absence of SCR defined a group of patients with significantly higher mortality rate (odds ratio 4.89, 95% confidence interval 2.07 to 11.57). Three simple noninvasive clinical criteria of successful reperfusion may be used to identify a group of patients with poor prognosis after thrombolytic therapy in whom alternative strategies could be applied.
Pomés Iparraguirre, H; Conti, C; Grancelli, H; Ohman, EM; Calandrelli, M; Volman, S; Garber, V
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