Characterization of GRK2-catalyzed phosphorylation of the human substance P receptor in Sf9 membranes.
G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate agonist-occupied G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), resulting in GPCR desensitization. GRK2 is one of the better studied of the six known GRKs and phosphorylates several GPCRs. In a previous study, we documented that GRK2 and GRK3 phosphorylate purified and reconstituted rat substance P receptor (rSPR) [Kwatra et al. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 9161-9164]. Here, we characterize in detail GRK2-catalyzed phosphorylation of human SPR (hSPR) in intact membranes. GRK2 phosphorylates hSPR in urea-washed Sf9 membranes in an agonist-dependent manner with a stoichiometry of 19 +/- 1 mol of phosphate/mol of receptor, which increases slightly (1.3-fold increase) in the presence of G beta gamma. Kinetic analyses indicate that receptor phosphorylation occurs with a Km of 6.3 +/- 0.4 nM and a Vmax of 1.8 +/- 0.1 nmol/min/mg; these kinetic parameters are only slightly affected by G beta gamma [Km = 3.6 +/- 1.0 nM and Vmax = 2.2 +/- 0.2 nmol/min/mg]. The lack of a strong stimulatory effect of G beta gamma on GRK2-catalyzed phosphorylation of hSPR is surprising since G beta gamma potently stimulates GRK2-catalyzed phosphorylation of beta 2-adrenergic receptor and rhodopsin. Involvement of G beta gamma endogenously present in membranes is ruled out as a source of high levels of hSPR phosphorylation, since receptor phosphorylation was not affected by guanine nucleotides that suppress or enhance the release of endogenous G beta gamma. The present study determines, for the first time, the kinetics of phosphorylation of a receptor substrate of GRK2 in intact membranes. Further, our results identify hSPR as a unique substrate of GRK2 whose phosphorylation is strong even in the absence of G beta gamma.
Nishimura, K; Warabi, K; Roush, ED; Frederick, J; Schwinn, DA; Kwatra, MM
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