Preparation and characterization of anti-tenascin monoclonal antibody-streptavidin conjugates for pretargeting applications.
Radioimmunopretargeting is based on the separate injection of a modified mAb and the radionuclide and most frequently exploits the very high avidity of biotin for streptavidin (SA). Currently, we are evaluating the therapeutic potential of directly labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) 81C6, reactive with the extracellular matrix protein tenascin, in surgically created glioma resection cavity patients. To be able to investigate pretargeting in this setting, the synthesis of 81C6 mAb-SA conjugates was required. In the current study, we have evaluated five methods for preparing both murine 81C6 (m81C6) and human/mouse chimeric 81C6 (c81C6) SA conjugates with regard to yield, biotin-binding capacity, immunoreactivity, and molecular weight. The 81C6 mAb and SA were coupled by covalent interaction between sulfhydryl groups generated on the mAb via N-succinimidyl-S-acetylthioacetate, dithiothreitol or 2-iminothiolane (2IT), and maleimido-derivatized SA, prepared via sulfosuccinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (SMCC) or N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionate. A noncovalent approach involving reaction of a biotinylated mAb, prepared using biotin caproate, and SA also was studied. The evaluation criteria were yield of mAb-SA 215 kDa monomer, as well as conjugate biotin-binding capacity and immunoreactive fraction. The optimal procedure involved activation of m81C6 or c81C6 with 30 equiv of 2IT and reaction of SA with 10 equiv of SMCC and yielded a conjugate with excellent biotin-binding capacity and immunoreactivity. The ((125)I-labeled m81C6)-2IT-SMCC-SA was stable and did not lose biotin-binding capacity after a 72 h incubation in human glioma cyst fluid in vitro. Although the conjugate was stable in murine serum in vivo, its biotin-binding capacity declined rapidly, consistent with high endogenous biotin levels in the mouse. After injection of the radioiodinated conjugate into athymic mice with subcutaneous D-54 MG human glioma xenografts, high tumor uptake (36.0 +/- 10.7% ID/g at 3 days) and excellent tumor:normal tissue ratios were observed.
Foulon, CF; Bigner, DD; Zalutsky, MR
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