Detection of glioma-associated gangliosides GM2, GD2, GD3, 3'-isoLM1 3',6'-isoLD1 in central nervous system tumors in vitro and in vivo using epitope-defined monoclonal antibodies.
In this study, MAbs to the 'conventional' gangliosides expressed by human gliomas were generated and used to detect ganglioside species previously unisolated or defined in normal adult CNS tissue. Despite the marked phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity shown by glioma cell lines (Bigner et al., 1981), the ganglioside phenotype of these cell lines is remarkably consistent qualitatively, if not quantitatively, in the ganglioside species expressed (Table V). The majority of cell lines and tumor samples express GM2, GD2 and GD3; this does not provide a diagnostic advantage (Vick et al., 1992). Nevertheless, as the relative amounts of these gangliosides in tumor as compared with normal adult CNS tissue is considerable, such reagents might be considered in compartmental immunotherapeutic approaches. Since GD2 and GD3 have been determined to mediate tumoricidal activity with human effector cells via specific antiganglioside epitope MAbs (Thurin et al., 1987; Kushner and Cheung, 1991; Barker et al., 1991; Reisfeld, 1993), cell-mediated approaches, as well as targeted immunoglobulin therapies, are also possible. The prospect of a more targeted approach with little or no effect on normal CNS tissue is now possible via the 'oncofetal' epitopes characteristic of 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1. Several factors recommend the use of these moieties for compartmental immunotherapy; the inability to detect them within the adult CNS; the relatively high frequency of expression of 3'-isoLM1 and 3',6'-isoLD1, especially in human tumor samples (50-100%, depending upon the series and assay); and the existence of specific MAbs reactive with these epitopes. Current technology is being applied to these MAbs to transfer the specific recognition capacity of existing murine MAbs into various human framework structures of any desired immunoglobulin class, and thereby, biologic function. The variety of effector functions, the stability in affinity, labeling capacity, and the exquisite sensitivity of these MAbs for these glioma-distinctive epitopes is an exciting and promising approach for immunotherapy of human CNS tumors.
Wikstrand, CJ; Fredman, P; Svennerholm, L; Bigner, DD
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