Correlation of neuropathologic findings, computerized tomographic and high-resolution ultrasound scans of canine avian sarcoma virus-induced brain tumors.
The location, size, geometry and neuropathological findings of anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), gliosarcomas and sarcomas induced by the avian sarcoma virus (ASV) in dogs were compared with images generated using computerized tomography (CT) and real time high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS). Seven AA showed a wide range of findings on CT. Pre-contrast CT scans showed that the tumors could be hyper, hypo, or isodense. Three of seven AA had no contrast enhancement; two of these tumors were also isodense which resulted in a false-negative CT exam. Partial enhancement was seen in one tumor. This resulted in a sensitivity of detection of 72%. Real time HRUS was able to define tumor location, size and geometry of the AA missed or incompletely imaged by CT. All tumors were hyperechoic. Inhomogeneity of the echo pattern was due to hemorrhage, cyst formation, and necrosis within the tumors. Such secondary tumor characteristics were more accurately defined by HRUS compared to CT. Vasogenic edema in the brain surrounding tumors was of low density on CT and hypoechoic or indistinguishable from normal brain on US. Similar findings were seen in six gliosarcomas, two of which were not visualized by either pre- or post-contrast enhanced CT scans (sensitivity of 66%). Sarcomas differed in that they were either hyper or isodense; none were hypodense. The area of increased density matched the tumor geometry and correlated with dense cellularity and reticulin deposition. All 13 sarcomas showed contrast enhancement (100% sensitivity), but in two tumors, contrast enhanced CT underestimated the size of the tumor. Because of the large size and multiplicity of the sarcomas, HRUS imaging was not able to resolve the entire tumor volume because of limited imaging access. Intravenously injected horseradish peroxidase (HRP) crossed the tumor blood-brain barrier (BBB) only in those tumors in which contrast enhancement was seen. These studies suggest that intraoperative HRUS imaging may be useful in detecting and delineating human AA incompletely visualized by CT.
Britt, RH; Lyons, BE; Enzmann, DR; Saxer, EL; Bigner, SH; Bigner, DD
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