Humeral avulsions of the glenohumeral ligament: imaging features and a review of the literature.
OBJECTIVE: We describe the radiologic findings of the humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL lesion) and its commonly associated injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of six cases of HAGL lesion diagnosed at our institution from October 1996 to February 2001 was performed. We reviewed the radiology reports, radiologic examinations, medical records, and operative notes. All patients had undergone radiography, and four patients had undergone MR imaging of the shoulder before diagnostic arthroscopy. RESULTS: All the patients were men who ranged in age from 19 to 41 years (mean, 26 years). Four patients (67%) had an anterior shoulder dislocation. Three of the HAGL lesions (50%) were detected on radiologic examinations, either by radiography or MR imaging. One patient had a bony HAGL. All patients had associated injuries. The most common associated abnormalities were osteochondral injury of the humeral head (n = 3), rotator cuff tear (n = 3), Bankart lesion (n = 3), Hill-Sachs lesion (n = 2), avulsion of the middle glenohumeral ligament (n = 1), partial tear of the biceps brachii tendon (n = 1), and comminuted fracture of the clavicle (n = 1). CONCLUSION: With an incidence of 7.5% and 9.4% in two large series of patients, the HAGL lesion is an important cause of anterior instability of the glenohumeral joint. The majority (68%) of patients with an HAGL lesion have associated injuries.
Bui-Mansfield, LT; Taylor, DC; Uhorchak, JM; Tenuta, JJ
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