Hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass increases cerebral infarct volume after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.
Although the optimal hematocrit during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is not defined, excessive hemodilution may lead to organ ischemia via a reduction in oxygen-carrying capacity uncompensated by autoregulatory and/or rheologic increases in organ blood flow. As a result, the consequences of hemodilution in patients at risk for cerebral ischemia are not clearly understood. We designed this study to evaluate the effects of hemodilution in the setting of focal cerebral ischemia during CPB. Wistar rats surgically prepared for CPB were randomized to either hemodilution (hemoglobin (Hb), 6 g/dL; n = 9) or control (Hb, 11 g/dL; n = 8) groups and subsequently exposed to focal cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Immediately after the onset of MCAO (maintained for 90 min), 65 min of hypothermic (28 degrees C) CPB was initiated. Twenty-four hours later, functional neurological outcome and cerebral infarct volume were determined. Compared with controls, the hemodilution group had worse neurological performance (new score = 8 , hemodilution; versus 10 , control; P = 0.030) and larger total cerebral infarct volumes (182 +/- 84 mm(3), hemodilution; versus 103 +/- 58 mm(3), control; P = 0.043). In this experimental model of CPB with reversible MCAO-induced focal cerebral ischemia, hemodilution worsened neurological function and increased cerebral infarct volume.
Homi, HM; Yang, H; Pearlstein, RD; Grocott, HP
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