Lymphocyte and monocyte subset changes during cardiopulmonary bypass: effects of aging and gender.
Complications of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be associated with either immune suppression or immune activation, but the specific effects of CPB on many lymphocyte and monocyte subsets are unclear. In addition, the increasing age of patients undergoing cardiac surgery raises the possibility of even greater effects on the immune system in elderly patients. We measured immunophenotypic alterations of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes after CPB in male and female cardiac surgery patients who were either younger than 60 or older than 75 years of age. The total lymphocyte counts in all patients decreased postoperatively; older patients had significantly lower counts at all time points. The absolute decline was greatest among T cells and particularly CD4+ T cells, which reached an average nadir of 251 cells/microl on postoperative day 1 in the older patients. The percentages of CD8+, CD4+CD45RA+, and CD4+CD45RO+ T cells did not change significantly, whereas the percentages of B cells and natural killer cells increased. Both T and B lymphocytes and monocytes showed evidence of activation, with increased percentages of CD3+HLADr+, CD3+IL2R+, and CD19+CD23+ lymphocytes and increased expression of CD11b on monocytes. By contrast, expression of class II major histocompatibility antigen (HLADr) monocytes decreased significantly. We conclude that CPB produces a profound alteration in the pool of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes, evidenced by decreased numbers of lymphocyte subsets including CD4+ cells and decreased expression of monocyte surface membrane proteins important for antigen presentation; CPB also activates a variety of specific circulating mononuclear cell subsets. Older patients showed patterns of lymphocyte and monocyte activation comparable to those of younger patients; however, they had consistently lower lymphocyte numbers and a trend toward decreased monocyte HLADr expression, potentially placing them at greater risk for infectious complications. Gender had no effect.
Rinder, CS; Mathew, JP; Rinder, HM; Tracey, JB; Davis, E; Smith, BR
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