Multicenter study of target-controlled infusion of propofol-sufentanil or sufentanil-midazolam for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia (McSPI) Research Group.
BACKGROUND: The use of target-controlled infusions of anesthetics for coronary artery bypass graft surgery has not been studied in detail. The effects of target-controlled infusions of propofol or sufentanil, supplemented by infusions of sufentanil or midazolam, respectively, were evaluated and compared. METHODS: At 14 clinical sites, 329 patients were given a target-controlled infusion of propofol (n = 165) to produce effect-site concentration (Ce) of > or = 3-micrograms/ml or a target-controlled infusion of sufentanil (n = 164). Sufentanil or midazolam, respectively, also were infused. Systolic hypertension, hypotension, tachycardia, and bradycardia were assessed by measuring heart rate and blood pressure every minute during operation. Myocardial ischemia was assessed perioperatively by monitoring ST segment deviation via continuous three-lead Holter electrocardiography, and it was evaluated during operation by monitoring left ventricular wall motion abnormality via transesophageal echocardiography. RESULTS: The measured cardiovascular parameters were satisfactory and usually similar for the patients receiving propofol-sufentanil or sufentanil-midazolam. The primary endpoint of the percentage of patients with intraoperative ST segment deviation (23 +/- 6% vs. 24 +/- 6%, P = 0.86) did not differ significantly between the two groups. The incidence of left ventricular wall motion abnormality shown on transesophageal echocardiography before (19 +/- 4% vs. 26 +/- 4%, P = 0.25) and after (23 +/- 4% vs. 31 +/- 5%, P = 0.32) cardiopulmonary bypass also did not differ significantly for the two groups. Changes in intraoperative target concentration were more frequent with propofol-sufentanil anesthetic than with sufentanil-midazolam (11.7 +/- 7.1 vs. 7.3 +/- 3.6, P < 0.001). The incidence of intraoperative hypotension (77% vs. 55%, P < 0.001), the use of inotropic/vasopressor medications (93% vs. 84%, P = 0.01), and the administration of crystalloids (2.8 +/- 1.4 L vs. 2.4 +/- 1.2 L, P < 0.001) were significantly greater in the propofol-sufentanil group. Conversely, the incidence of intraoperative hypertension (43% vs. 54%, P = 0.05) and the use of antihypertensive/vasodilator medications (70% vs. 90%, P < 0.001) were significantly less in the propofol-sufentanil group. CONCLUSIONS: Target-controlled infusions of propofol or sufentanil, supplemented by infusions of sufentanil or midazolam, respectively, were suitable to provide anesthesia for coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Continuous monitoring revealed a high prevalence of hemodynamic abnormalities. Despite greater hypotension in the propofol-sufentanil group and greater hypertension in the sufentanil-midazolam group, episodes of myocardial ischemia were similar for both groups and were not temporally related to episodes of hemodynamic abnormalities.
Jain, U; Body, SC; Bellows, W; Wolman, R; Mangano, CM; Mathew, J; Youngs, E; Wilson, R; Zhang, A; Mangano, DT
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