The association of oncogenic human papillomaviruses with urologic malignancy. The controversies and clinical implications.
Sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses (HPV) are linked to both benign and malignant lesions of the genitourinary tract. Evidence links oncogenic HPV types with carcinomas of the penis and urethra. An association with other common sites of urologic malignancies (prostate, bladder) is controversial. Whereas the screening of sexually active females for HPV has received substantial attention, the presence of a potential male carrier state has received little scrutiny. Systemic immunotherapies based on expression of HPV-related proteins by infected or transformed human epithelia, however, may be possible in the near future.
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