Self-Esteem as an Interpersonal Monitor: The Sociometer Hypothesis

Published

Journal Article

Five studies tested hypotheses derived from the sociometer model of self-esteem according to which the self-esteem system monitors others' reactions and alerts the individual to the possibility of social exclusion. Study 1 showed that the effects of events on participants' state self-esteem paralleled their assumptions about whether such events would lead others to accept or reject them. In Study 2, participants' ratings of how included they felt in a real social situation correlated highly with their self-esteem feelings. In Studies 3 and 4, social exclusion caused decreases in self-esteem when respondents were excluded from a group for personal reasons, but not when exclusion was random, but this effect was not mediated by self-presentation. Study 5 showed that trait self-esteem correlated highly with the degree to which respondents generally felt included versus excluded by other people. Overall, results provided converging evidence for the sociometer model. © 1995 American Psychological Association.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Leary, MR; Tambor, ES; Terdal, SK; Downs, DL

Published Date

  • January 1, 1995

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 68 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 518 - 530

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0022-3514

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1037/0022-3514.68.3.518

Citation Source

  • Scopus