The dilemma of performance-approach goals: The use of multiple goal contexts to promote students' motivation and learning
The study examines the effects of a quasi-experimental classroom goal condition (mastery, performance-approach, combined mastery/performance-approach) and entering personal goal orientations on motivation, emotional well-being, help seeking, cognitive engagement, and achievement for 237 upper elementary students during a 5-week math unit emphasizing small groups. The classroom goal condition had a significant effect on help seeking and achievement, with the combined condition showing the most beneficial pattern. Personal mastery goals were beneficial for 11 of 12 outcomes including achievement; personal performance-approach goals were detrimental for achievement and test anxiety and unrelated to the remaining outcomes. The effect of the classroom goal condition did not vary on the basis of entering personal goal orientations. Implications for the current achievement goal theory debate regarding multiple goals are discussed. Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association.
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