Regulation of factor Xa in vitro in human and mouse plasma and in vivo in mouse. Role of the endothelium and plasma proteinase inhibitors.
The regulation of human Factor Xa was studied in vitro in human and mouse plasma, and in vivo in mouse. In human plasma, 125I-Factor Xa bound to alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, antithrombin III, and alpha 2-macroglobulin in a ratio of 4.9:1.9:1 as determined by gel electrophoresis and by adsorption to IgG-(antiproteinase inhibitor)-Sepharose beads. The distribution of Factor Xa in mouse plasma was similar. The clearance of Factor Xa in mice was rapid (50% clearance in 3 min) and biphasic. alpha 1-Proteinase inhibitor-trypsin, even at a 2,000-fold molar excess, failed to inhibit the clearance of Factor Xa, while alpha 2-macroglobulin-trypsin inhibited only the later phase of clearance. The plasma clearance of diisopropylphosphoryl-Factor Xa was more rapid than native Factor Xa (50% clearance in 2.5 min), and the clearance was blocked by diisopropylphosphoryl-thrombin. Electrophoresis experiments confirmed that by 2 min after injection into the murine circulation, 90% of the bound Factor Xa was on alpha 2-macroglobulin, in marked contrast to the in vitro results. Organ distribution studies at 3 and 15 min with 125I-Factor Xa demonstrated that the majority of radioactivity was in the liver, with significant radioactivity also present in lung and kidney. Autopsies performed 30 s after injection of 125I-Factor Xa also demonstrated significant binding to the aorta and vena cava. These studies indicate that Factor Xa binds to specific thrombin-binding sites on endothelial cells, and that this binding alters its proteinase inhibitor specificity. Factor Xa binds to alpha 2-macroglobulin in vivo, whereas the predominant in vitro inhibitor of Factor Xa is alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor.
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