Hepatocyte uptake of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor-trypsin complexes in vitro: evidence for a shared uptake mechanism for proteinase complexes of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and antithrombin III.
In vivo clearance studies have indicated that the clearance of proteinase complexes of the homologous serine proteinase inhibitors alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and antithrombin III occurs via a specific and saturable pathway located on hepatocytes. In vitro hepatocyte-uptake studies with antithrombin III-proteinase complexes confirmed the hepatocyte uptake and degradation of these complexes, and demonstrated the formation of a disulfide interchange product between the ligand and a cellular protein. We now report the results of in vitro hepatocyte uptake studies with alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor-trypsin complexes. Trypsin complexes of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor were prepared and purified to homogeneity. Uptake of these complexes by hepatocytes was time and concentration-dependent. Competition experiments with alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor-trypsin, and antithrombin III-thrombin indicated that the proteinase complexes of these two inhibitors are recognized by the same uptake mechanism, whereas the native inhibitor is not. Uptake studies were performed at 37 degrees C with 125I-alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor-trypsin and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis in conjunction with autoradiography. These studies demonstrated time-dependent uptake and degradation of the ligand to low molecular weight peptides. In addition, there was a time-dependent accumulation of a high molecular weight complex of ligand and a cellular protein. This complex disappeared when gels were performed under reducing conditions. The sole cysteine residue in alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor was reduced and alkylated with iodoacetamide. Trypsin complexes of the modified inhibitor were prepared and purified to homogeneity. Uptake and degradation studies demonstrated no differences in the results obtained with this modified complex as compared to unmodified alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor-trypsin complex. In addition, the high molecular weight disulfide interchange product was still present on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of solubilized cells. Clearance and clearance competition studies with alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor-trypsin, alkylated alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor-trypsin, antithrombin III-thrombin, and anti-thrombin III-factor IXa further demonstrated the shared hepatocyte uptake mechanism for all these complexes.
Fuchs, HE; Michalopoulos, GK; Pizzo, SV
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