Opposing actions of Stat1 and Stat6 on IL-13-induced up-regulation of early growth response-1 and platelet-derived growth factor ligands in pulmonary fibroblasts.
IL-13 is a key cytokine involved in airway remodeling in asthma. We previously reported that IL-13 stimulated the mitogenesis of lung fibroblasts via platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA. In this report, we show that IL-13 increases PDGF-A and PDGF-C mRNA levels through a dual intracellular cascade that requires coactivation of Stat6 and Stat1 to impact transcriptional regulation of the early growth response (Egr)-1 gene, which then drives PDGF expression. Increased levels of PDGF-AA and PDGF-CC protein were observed in vivo in the airways of IL-13 transgenic mice. IL-13 up-regulated PDGF-A and PDGF-C mRNA levels in lung fibroblasts isolated from three different background strains of mice. However, IL-13-induced PDGF-A and PDGF-C mRNA levels were significantly reduced in Stat6-deficient (Stat6(-/-)) fibroblasts as compared with wild-type Stat6(+/+) fibroblasts. In contrast, IL-13-induced PDGF-A and PDGF-C mRNAs were enhanced in Stat1(-/-) fibroblasts as compared with Stat1(+/+) fibroblasts. IL-13 did not up-regulate PDGF-A or PDGF-C mRNA levels in Egr-1(-/-) fibroblasts. Moreover, IL-13 did not increase Egr-1 mRNA and protein levels in Stat6(-/-) fibroblasts and yet enhanced Egr-1 mRNA and protein levels in Stat1(-/-) fibroblasts. Our findings support the hypothesis that Stat6 and Stat1 exert stimulatory and inhibitory effects on Egr-1 and PDGF ligand mRNA transcription, respectively. This novel mechanism could aid in identifying molecular targets for the treatment of chronic airway remodeling and fibrosis in asthma.
Ingram, JL; Antao-Menezes, A; Mangum, JB; Lyght, O; Lee, PJ; Elias, JA; Bonner, JC
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