Self-regulation, rumination, and vulnerability to depression in adolescent girls.
There is increasing evidence that with the onset of adolescence, girls experience higher rates of depression than boys. However, a comprehensive understanding of the risk factors contributing to this emerging gender difference has yet to be attained. Previous studies indicate that both self-discrepancy, the perception that one is failing to attain an important personal goal, and ruminative coping, a tendency to passively and repetitively focus on one's failure and the causes and consequences of that failure, contribute to depression and that adolescent girls are more likely to manifest each than adolescent boys. In this translational study we tested the hypothesis that, whereas both actual:ideal discrepancy and ruminative coping style would independently predict depression in adolescent girls, the combination of high levels of actual:ideal discrepancy and ruminative coping would predict more severe depressive symptoms. Analyses of cross-sectional data in a sample of 223 girls ranging from 7th through 12th grades revealed a significant main effect for ruminative coping style and a trend for actual:ideal discrepancy, as well as the predicted interaction effect. We discuss the implications of this integrative psychosocial model for the etiology, treatment, and prevention of depression in adolescent girls.
Papadakis, AA; Prince, RP; Jones, NP; Strauman, TJ
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