Calmodulin is required for cell-cycle progression during G1 and mitosis.
In order to examine the consequences of a transient increase or decrease in intracellular calmodulin (CaM) levels, two bovine-papilloma-virus (BPV)-based expression vectors capable of inducibly synthesizing CaM sense (BPV-MCM) or anti-sense (BPV-CaMAS) RNA have been constructed and used to stably transform mouse C127 cells. Upon addition of Zn2+, cells containing the BPV-MCM vector have transiently increased CaM mRNA and protein levels. Cells carrying the BPV-CaMAS vector transiently produce CaM anti-sense RNA resulting in a significant decrease in intracellular CaM concentration. Increased CaM caused a transient acceleration of proliferation, while the anti-sense RNA induced decrease in CaM caused a transient cell cycle arrest. Flow cytometric analysis showed that progression through G1 and mitosis was affected by changes in CaM levels. These data indicate that CaM levels may limit the rate of cell-cycle progression under normal conditions of growth.
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