Regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by multisite phosphorylation in response to agents that elevate cellular cAMP.
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cAMP signaling systems are both key regulators of cellular metabolism. In this study, we show that AMPK activity is attenuated in response to cAMP-elevating agents through modulation of at least two of its alpha subunit phosphorylation sites, viz. alpha-Thr(172) and alpha1-Ser(485)/alpha2-Ser(491), in the clonal beta-cell line INS-1 as well as in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and COS cells. Forskolin, isobutylmethylxanthine, and the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide inhibited AMPK activity and reduced phosphorylation of the activation loop alpha-Thr(172) via inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-alpha and -beta, but not LKB1. These agents also enhanced phosphorylation of alpha-Ser(485/491) by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. AMPK alpha-Ser(485/491) phosphorylation was necessary but not sufficient for inhibition of AMPK activity in response to forskolin/isobutylmethylxanthine. We show that AMPK alpha-Ser(485/491) can be a site for autophosphorylation, which may play a role in limiting AMPK activation in response to energy depletion or other regulators. Thus, our findings not only demonstrate cross-talk between the cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase and AMPK signaling modules, but also describe a novel mechanism by which multisite phosphorylation of AMPK contributes to regulation of its enzyme activity.
Hurley, RL; Barré, LK; Wood, SD; Anderson, KA; Kemp, BE; Means, AR; Witters, LA
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