Direct binding of activated c-Src to the beta 3-adrenergic receptor is required for MAP kinase activation.
Both beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenergic receptors (ARs) are able to activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. We previously showed that c-Src is required for ERK activation by beta(2)AR and that it is recruited to activated beta(2)AR through binding of the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain to proline-rich regions of the adapter protein beta-arrestin1. Despite the absence of sites for phosphorylation and beta-arrestin binding, ERK activation by beta(3)AR still requires c-Src. Agonist activation of beta(2)AR, but not beta(3)AR, led to redistribution of green fluorescent protein-tagged beta-arrestin to the plasma membrane. In beta-arrestin-deficient COS-7 cells, beta-agonist-dependent co-precipitation of c-Src with the beta(2)AR required exogenous beta-arrestin, but activated beta(3)AR co-precipitated c-Src in the absence or presence of beta-arrestin. ERK activation and Src co-precipitation with beta(3)AR also occurred in adipocytes in an agonist-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. Protein interaction studies show that the beta(3)AR interacts directly with the SH3 domain of Src through proline-rich motifs (PXXP) in the third intracellular loop and the carboxyl terminus. ERK activation and Src co-precipitation were abolished in cells expressing point mutations in these PXXP motifs. Together, these data describe a novel mechanism of ERK activation by a G protein-coupled receptor in which the intracellular domains directly recruit c-Src.
Cao, W; Luttrell, LM; Medvedev, AV; Pierce, KL; Daniel, KW; Dixon, TM; Lefkowitz, RJ; Collins, S
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