Development of functional diversity in mouse macrophages. Mutual exclusion of two phenotypic states.
The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms that contribute to the generation of macrophage functional diversity. Exposure of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages to beta-1,3-glucan, a particulate inflammatory stimulus, or polyinosinate-polycytidylate (poly[I:C]), a stimulus of macrophage cytocidal activation, induced distinct and stimulus-specific patterns of gene expression. These changes were characterized by an up-regulation of the expression of the acid hydrolase beta-glucuronidase and platelet-derived growth factor B following incubation with beta-1,3-glucan and a stimulation of the expression of the complement component Bf, beta-interferon, and the reactive nitrogen intermediates NO2/NO3 during incubation with poly[I:C]. The induction of Bf expression by poly[I:C] could not be explained on the basis of distinct subpopulations of cells since in situ hybridization with a mouse Bf cRNA probe revealed a uniform and substantial increase in Bf expression by the entire population of cells. Incubation of macrophages with beta-1,3-glucan before stimulation with poly[I:C] was found to strongly attenuate the expression of Bf and beta-interferon. Conversely, incubation with poly[I:C] prior to exposure to beta-1,3-glucan substantially blocked the stimulation of beta-glucuronidase and platelet-derived growth factor B expression, indicating that these two responses were expressed in a mutually antagonistic fashion. However, after removal of either stimulus and following a period in which the primary response was allowed to decay, the cells regained their capacity to subsequently respond to either the same stimulus or to a different stimulus. Collectively, these findings indicate, first, that the heterogeneity of gene expression seen in response to poly[I:C] represents an adaptive response of the entire macrophage population rather than the restricted responses of distinct subpopulations of cells. Second, macrophages respond to these stimuli in a sequential fashion. These findings thus have a significant bearing on our understanding of the regulation of macrophage heterogeneity in host defense.
Laszlo, DJ; Henson, PM; Remigio, LK; Weinstein, L; Sable, C; Noble, PW; Riches, DW
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