Retroperitoneal and pelvic extraperitoneal laparoscopy: an international perspective.
OBJECTIVES: To assess technical preferences and current practice trends of retroperitoneal and pelvic extraperitoneal laparoscopy. METHODS: A questionnaire survey of 36 selected urologic laparoscopic centers worldwide was performed. RESULTS: Twenty-four centers (67%) responded. Overall, 3988 laparoscopic procedures were reported: transperitoneal approach (n = 2945) and retroperitoneal/extraperitoneal approach (n = 1043). Retroperitoneoscopic/extraperitoneoscopic procedures included adrenalectomy (n = 74), nephrectomy (n = 299), ureteral procedures (n = 166), pelvic lymph node dissection (n = 197), bladder neck suspension (n = 210), varix ligation (n = 91), and lumbar sympathectomy (n = 6). Mean number of total laparoscopic procedures performed in 1995 per center was 41 (range 5 to 86). Major complications occurred in 49 (4.7%) patients and included visceral complications in 26 (2.5%) patients and vascular complications in 23 (2.2%). Open conversion was performed in 69 (6.6%) patients, electively in 41 and emergently in 28 (visceral injuries, n = 16; vascular injuries, n = 1 2). Retroperitoneoscopy/extraperitoneoscopy is gaining in acceptance worldwide: in 1993, the mean estimated ratio of transperitoneal laparoscopic cases versus retroperitoneoscopic/ extraperitoneoscopic cases per center was 74:26; however, in 1996 the ratio was 49:51. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneoscopy and pelvic extraperitoneoscopy are important adjuncts to the laparoscopic armamentarium in urologic surgery. The overall major complication rate associated with retroperitoneoscopy/extraperitoneoscopy was 4.7%.
Gill, IS; Clayman, RV; Albala, DM; Aso, Y; Chiu, AW; Das, S; Donovan, JF; Fuchs, GJ; Gaur, DD; Go, H; Gomella, LG; Grune, MT; Harewood, LM; Janetschek, G; Knapp, PM; McDougall, EM; Nakada, SY; Preminger, GM; Puppo, P; Rassweiler, JJ; Royce, PL; Thomas, R; Urban, DA; Winfield, HN
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