Effects of indocyanine green on the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in a porcine model of retinal hole.
PURPOSE: This study was designed to emulate human macular hole surgery and to test the effects of indocyanine green (ICG) on the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). METHODS: Yorkshire Cross pigs (n = 23) underwent vitrectomy, separation of the posterior cortical vitreous, and creation of a single retinal hole. In three study groups (n = 6, each group), air-fluid exchange was performed, following which balanced salt solution (BSS), 1.0% ICG, or 0.5% ICG was applied over the retinal hole. In one additional group (n = 5), 0.5% ICG was injected into the fluid-filled eye. At 4 weeks, the eyes were examined clinically, and fundus photographs were obtained before enucleation and light microscopic examination. RESULTS: Clinical evaluations documented a statistically significant difference between study groups (P = 0.036). There was a higher rate of moderate or severe RPE atrophy among animals where 1% or 0.5% ICG was applied in air-filled eyes (83% and 67%, respectively) compared with BSS controls (17%) and fluid-filled eyes receiving 0.5% ICG (40%). Histologic evaluation demonstrated a statistically significant difference between groups (P = 0.044), with extensive outer retinal degeneration observed in air-filled eyes receiving 1% or 0.5% ICG (66% and 60%, respectively) compared with BSS controls or fluid-filled eyes receiving 0.5% ICG (none of the eyes in either group). None of the study groups had any changes in the inner retina except at the retinal hole site. CONCLUSIONS: Retina exposed to ICG concentrations used in human vitreoretinal surgery had greater RPE atrophy and outer retinal degeneration than control eyes undergoing the same surgery without ICG. Eyes filled with infusion fluid during ICG injection had less damage to the RPE and outer retina than did air-filled eyes receiving ICG.
Czajka, MP; McCuen, BW; Cummings, TJ; Nguyen, H; Stinnett, S; Wong, F
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