Direct sequencing of the activation peptide and the catalytic domain of the factor IX gene in six species.
By means of RNA amplification with transcript sequencing (RAWTS) under low stringency conditions, sequence was obtained directly without cloning for the activation peptide and the catalytic domain of factor IX from six species--sheep, pig, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, and mouse. The data presented demonstrate that, by the appropriate design of oligonucleotides and by performance of a nested PCR under appropriate conditions, it is possible to obtain sequence on a battery of species with a minimum of oligonucleotide primers. A total of 5.2 kb of cross-species sequence was generated with RAWTS. The results indicate that (1) 69% of the amino acids in the catalytic domain, but only 23% of the amino acids in the activation peptide, are identical in humans and the six species; (2) the catalytic domain evolves at a slower rate, but the extent and pattern of conservation of amino acids in the activation peptide suggest that the peptide functions as more than a cleavage spacer that separates the heavy and light chains in the catalytically inactive zymogen; (3) 37% of the amino acids in the activation peptide and 34% of the amino acids in the catalytic domain are factor IX-specific; i.e., they are either identical or changed in a highly conservative fashion in factor IX, but not in other related coagulation proteases; (4) these conserved factor IX-specific amino acids fall into three clusters, which are candidates for involvement in the protein interactions specific to factor IX; (5) there is a human-specific deletion after lysine 142 and a rodent-specific insertion after alanine 161; (6) in guinea pig, the insertion is associated with a seven-amino-acid repeat that corresponds to a perfect repeat of a 21-bp sequence; (7) humans have lost a potential N-glycosylation site that is conserved in the other species; (8) in each species, a few nonconservative changes occur in amino acids that are otherwise completely conserved, suggesting that compensatory mutations may have occurred; and (9) when compared to that of mouse, the amino acid identity with guinea pig factor IX is no greater than that found for the non-rodent species, a result compatible with the postulated increased rate of evolution in rodents.
Sarkar, G; Koeberl, DD; Sommer, SS
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