Evidence for platelet-activating factor secretion during immune activation in dogs.
To elucidate the potential physiological significance of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in acute bronchoconstriction, we studied the effect of Ascaris suum antigen on the tachyphylactic response to PAF in 15 natively allergic mongrel dogs in vivo. Active bronchial tension was measured isometrically, and mediator secretion was measured as the arteriovenous difference (AVd) in plasma concentration across the lungs. Administration of PAF into the bronchial artery caused dose-related contraction in five control dogs (maximal active tension = 11.8 +/- 1.68 g/cm) that paralleled the increase in the AVd for serotonin (4,188 +/- 175 pg/ml) but not histamine (maximal AVd less than 6.0 ng/ml). The response to PAF was highly tachyphylactic. In contrast to PAF, 1:10 concentration of intra-arterial antigen caused substantial release of histamine (AVd = 308 +/- 57.1 ng/ml; P less than 0.001 vs. PAF). Diminished responsiveness (2-log shift in threshold and maximal contraction; P less than 0.001) to PAF was demonstrated in five dogs after 1:10 antigen, compatible with endogenous release of PAF during prior immune challenge in the same animals. Administration of Ascaris antigen caused a leftward shift in the dose-response curve to serotonin and only mild tachyphylaxis to the maximal response to histamine. Our data are compatible with physiological participation of PAF in eliciting bronchial smooth muscle contraction during the acute phase of immune activation caused by A. suum antigen.
Munoz, NM; Stimler-Gerard, NP; Mack, MM; Tutins, C; Blake, JS; Kelly, E; Murphy, TM; Leff, AR
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