Poxviral modifiers of cytokine responses to infection.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Poxviruses include some of the most virulent of all human pathogens. In part, the virulence of these viruses stems from their abilities to counter host defenses against infection. A family of cytokine-response modifiers encoded by the poxviruses contribute to these countermeasures. The poxviral cytokine-response modifiers appear to affect cytokine responses in at least four different ways: (a) by inhibiting the synthesis and release of cytokines from infected cells; (b) by interfering with the interaction between a cytokine and its receptor; (c) by inhibiting cytokine signal transmission; and (d) by synthesizing virus-encoded cytokines that antagonize the effects of host cytokines mediating antiviral processes. Known poxviral, cytokine-response modifiers include CrmA, an inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme; several secreted soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interferon-gamma; and poxvirus-encoded growth factors resembling epidermal growth factor. Collectively, these and other as yet unidentified cytokine-response modifiers contribute to the inhibition of a variety of nonspecific and virus-specific immune defenses against virus infection. Information gained on the mechanisms used by poxviruses to modify cytokine-mediated processes should assist the development of novel therapies for a variety of diseases.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Pickup, DJ

Published Date

  • April 1, 1994

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 3 / 2-3

Start / End Page

  • 116 - 127

PubMed ID

  • 7812650

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1056-2044

Language

  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States